Ph.D.  Forest Ecology and Crop Science.1990, Oregon State University; M.S. Agronomy/Weed Science,1984, Montana State University, 1978-79 Peace Corps Micronesia, B.S. Botany, 1977, Montana State University. Research and teaching specialization in applied plant ecology including agroecology, invasive plant ecology and weed biology. Research on the design and development of sustainable production systems and adaptive management strategies for annual and perennial weeds in crop and natural ecosystems. I am a lead author for the Agricultural Sector of the Montana Climate Assessment. My current research interests are focused on creating an on-farm experimentation framework utilizing precision agriculture technologies to improve profitability and sustainability of small grain production in the Northern Great Plains. My expertise includes plant population and community modeling to understand weed and invasive plant population temporal and spatial dynamics and their impacts on the ecosystems they occupy. Historically I have conducted research on crop-weed competition, herbicide resistance evolution, and economic thresholds of weeds and invasive species. I have also conducted research on land use change and the consequences of fire as a disturbance in plant communities.

Selected Publications:

Menalled, F.D., R.K.D. Peterson, R.G. Smith, W.S. Curran, D.J. Páez, and B.D. Maxwell. 201_. The eco-evolutionary imperative: revisiting weed management in the midst of a herbicide resistance crisis. Sustainability (In review).

Taylor, K.T, Maxwell B.D, McWethy D.B, Pauchard A, and Nuñez M. 2017. Positive feedback between Pinus contorta invasion and fire likely above an invasion density threshold. Ecology (Accepted 11/21/2016).

Barroso, J., B.D. Maxwell, J. Dorado, D Andujar, C. San Martin and C. Fernandez-Quintanilla. 2016. Response of Sorghum halepense demographic processes to plant density and rimsulfuron dose in maize crop. Weed Res. 56:304-312.

Brummer T, Taylor KT, Rotella J, Maxwell B.D., Rew LJ, Lavin M. 2016. Drivers of Bromus tectorum abundance in the Western North American sagebrush steppe. Ecosystems. 19: 986-1000. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-016-9980-3

Taylor K.T, Maxwell, B.D, Pauchard A, Nuñez M, and Rew LJ. 2016. Native versus nonnative invasions: Similarities and differences in the biodiversity impacts of Pinus contorta in introduced and native ranges. Diversity and Distributions. 22:578-588.

Taylor, K. T., Maxwell, B. D., Pauchard, A., Nuñez, M. A., Peltzer, D. A., Terwei, A. and Rew, L. J. 2015. Drivers of plant invasion vary globally: evidence from pine invasions within six ecoregions. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 25:96-106. 

Barney, J.N., D.R. Tekiela, M. Noelia, R. Barrios-Garcia, R.D. Dimarco, R.A. Hufbauer, P. Leipzig-Scott, M.A. Nuῆez, A. Pauchard, P. Pyšek, M. Vitkova, B.D. Maxwell. 2015. Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN): towards standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants. Ecology and Evolution. 5(14): 2878–2889.

Lawrence, P.G., L.J. Rew and B.D. Maxwell. 2014. A probabilistic Bayesian framework for progressively updating site-specific recommendations. J. Precision Ag. 15: 15: 275-296.

Lawrence, P.G., L.J. Rew and B.D. Maxwell. 2014. A probabilistic framework for site-specific adaptive management under multiple uncertainties. Proceedings International Society of Precision Agriculture Conf., 12: Sacramento, California, July 20-23, 2014.

Jordon, N., J. Grossman, P. Lawrence, A. Harmon, W. Dyer, B. Maxwell, K. V. Cadieux, R. Galt, A. Rojas, C. Byker, S. Ahmed, T. Bass, E. Kebreab, V. Singh, T. Michaels, C. Tzenis. 2014. New curricula for undergraduate food systems education: A sustainable agriculture education perspective. NACTA Journal 58: 302-310

Skurski, T., L.J. Rew and B.D. Maxwell. 2014. Mechanisms Underlying Non-Native Plant Impacts: A Review of Recent Experimental Research. Invasive Plant Science and Management 7: available on line

Ward, S., R.D. Cousens, M.V. Bagavathiannan, J.N. Barney, H.J. Beckie, R. Busi, A.S. Davis, J.S. Dukes, F.Forcella, R.P. Freckleton, E.R. Gallandt, L.M. Hall, M. Jasieniuk, A.Lawton-Rauh, E.A. Lehnhoff, M. Liebman, B.D. Maxwell, M.B. Mesgaran, J.V. Murray, P. Neve, M.A. Nuñez, A. Pauchard, S.A. Queenborough, B.L. Webber. 2014. Agricultural weed research: a critique and two proposals. Weed Science 62: 672-678.

Taylor, K., T. Brummer, L.J. Rew, M. Lavin and B.D. Maxwell. 2014Climate drives Bromus tectorum positive feedback with fire. Ecosystems 17: 960-973 (DOI: 10.1007/s10021-014-9771-7)

Wilson, J.R.U., P. Caplat, I.A. Dickie, C. Hui, B.D. Maxwell, M.A. Nuῆez, A. Pauchard, M. Rejmánek, D.M. Richardson, M. P. Robertson, D. Spear, B.L. Webber, B.W. van Wilgen and R.D. Zenni. 2014. A standardized set of metrics to assess and monitor tree invasions. Biological Invasions 16:535-551.

Caplat, P. C. Hui, B.D. Maxwell and D.A. Peltzer. 2014. Cross-scale management strategies for optimal control of trees invading from source populations. Biological Invasions 16:677-690.

Gundale, M.J., A. Pauchard, B. Langdon, D.A. Peltzer, B.D. Maxwell and M.A. Nuñez. 2014. Pinus contorta as a global experiment and model system to unveil patterns and mechanisms of invasions. Biological Invasions 16:591-607.

Malone, K., A.H. Harmon, W.E. Dyer, B.D. Maxwell, C.A. Perillo. 2014. Development and Evaluation of an Introductory Course in Sustainable Food & Bioenergy Systems. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development ISSN: 2152-0801

Pollnac, F., B. Maxwell, M. Taper and L. Rew. 2013. The demography of native and non-native plant species in mountain systems:  examples in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Population Ecology 55:  (DOI 10.1007/s10144-013-0391-4)

Irvine, K.M., K. Michels, V.M. Backus, M.G. Hohmann, E.A. Lehnhoff, B.D.Maxwell, and L.J. Rew.  2013. A comparison of adaptive sampling designs and estimation methods for autologistic regression: a simulation study using a census of Bromus inermis.Environmetrics.24: DOI: 10.1002/env.2223.

Brummer, T.J., B.D. Maxwell, M.D. Higgs, and L.J. Rew. 2013. Implementing and interpreting local-scale invasive species distribution models. Diversity and Distributions 19:919-932. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12043

Lavin, M., T. Brummer, T. Seipel, B.Maxwell and L. Rew. 2013. The Intermountain Flora sets the stage for a community phylogenetic analysis of plant biodiversity in the sagebrush steppe of western North America. Memoirs of the NY Botanical Garden 108:63-84.

McWethy, D., P.Higuera, C.Whitlock, T.Veblen, D.Bowman, B. Keane, B. Maxwell, M. McGlone, G.Perry, J. Wilmshurst. 2013. A conceptual framework for predicting temperate ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts on fire regimes. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22:900-912. (DOI: 10.1111/geb.12038).

Lavin, M.,T.J. Brummer, R. Squire, B.D.Maxwell and L.J. Rew. 2013. Physical disturbance shapes vascular plant diversity more profoundly than fire in the sagebrush steppe of southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. Ecology and Evolution 3:1-16. DOI - 10.1002/ece3.574

Skurski, T.S., B.D. Maxwell and L.J. Rew. 2013. Ecological tradeoffs in non-native plant management. Biological Conservation. 159:292-302. DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.10.017.

Davis, P.B., F.D. Menalled and B.D. Maxwell. 2013. Impact of growing conditions on the competitive ability of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (Camelina), a proposed biofuel crop. Can, J. Plant Science 93:1-5.

Maxwell, B.D., V. Backus, M.G. Hohmann, K.M. Irvine, E. Lehnhoff and L.J. Rew. 2012. Comparison of transect based adaptive sampling methods for invasive plant species. Invasive Plant Science and Management 5:178-193.

Harker, K.N., J.T. O'Donovan, R.E. Blackshaw, H.J. Beckie, C. Mallory-Smith and B.D. Maxwell. 2012. Our View. Weed Sci. 60:143-144.

Davis, P.B., F.D. Menalled, R.K. Peterson and B.D. Maxwell. 2011. Refinement of weed risk assessment for biofuels using Camalina sativa as a model species. J. Applied Ecol. 48:989-997

Mortensen, D.A., J. F. Egan, B.D. Maxwell, M.R. Ryan, and R.G. Smith. 2011. Navigating a critical juncture for sustainable weed management. BioScience 61:75-84.

Egan, F.L., B.D. Maxwell, D.A. Mortensen, M.R. Ryan and R.G. Smith. 2011. 2,4-D resistant crops and the potential for  evolution of 2,4-D resistant weeds. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108:E37.

Maxwell, B.D. and J. T. O’Donovan. 2007. Understanding weed-crop interactions to manage weed problems. Pp. 17-33 In M.K. Upadhyaya and R.E.  Blackshaw (Eds) Non-chemical Weed Management. CAB International. Cambridge, MA.

Parks CG, Radosevish SR, Endress BA, Naylor BJ,  Anzinger D, Rew LJ, Maxwell BD &  Dwire KA. 2005. Natural and land use history of the Northwest Mountainous Ecoregions (U.S.A.) in relation to patterns of plant invasions. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 7:137-158.

Rew, L.J., Maxwell, B.D., Dougher, F.D., Aspinall, R. 2006. Searching for a needle in a haystack: evaluating survey methods for sessile species. Biological Invasions8:523-539

Maxwell, B.D. and E. Luschei. 2004. The ecology of crop-weed interactions:  Toward a more complete model of weed communities in agroecosystems. Journal of Crop Improvement 11:137-154.

Full Publication List

Research Grants:

  • 2015. B. Jacobsen and B. Maxwell. Increasing profitability by improving efficiency of Montana’s farm and ranch lands. Montana Research and Economic Development program. 1.5 yr. $2,489,000
  • 2015. M. Maneta, K. Jencso, K. Cobourn, J. Kimball, B. Maxwell, S. Ewing, P. Gardner, J. Sears. Understanding the hydrologic and socioeconomic impacts of water use and resource allocation in agricultural regions under different climate and policy scenarios. USDA-NIFA: Understanding Decisions and Behaviors 3 yr. $890,000
  • 2014. Carr, C.A. and B.D. Maxwell. Montana Noxious Weed Trust Fund. Patterns and Mechanisms of Cheatgrass invasion in the Northern Great Plains. 2 yr.  $29,000.
  • 2013. Maxwell, B. and P. Lawrence. Thresholds of resilience in agroecosystems. NSF EPSCoR Graduate Student Fellowship 2 yr. $23,647
  • 2012. Maxwell, B. and P. Lawrence. Uncertainty to Adoption of Sustainable Farming. USDA SARE Graduate Student Fellowship. 2 yr. $24,830.
  • 2012. Maxwell, B., L. Rew, A. Bekkerman and J. Belsky. Identifying the factors and interactions influencing agroecosystem sustainability thresholds. Inst.on Ecosys. 2 yr. $6,594.
  • 2012. Maxwell, B. and P. Lawrence. Understanding thresholds in agroecosystems. Graduate Student Fellowship. Inst.on Ecosys. 2 yr.  $22,150.
  • 2012. Maxwell, B. Precision management of nitrogen fertilizer. Montana Fertilizer Tax Fund. 1 yr. $19,500.
  • Whitlock, C., D. Aig, B. Maxwell, D. McWethy.  WildFIRE PIRE: Feedbacks and consequences of altered fire regimes in the face of climate and land-use change in Tasmania, New Zealand, and the western U.S. NSF-PIRE. 2010. 5 yr. $4,176,030
  • Rew, L. and B. Maxwell. Prioritizing invasive  non-native plant populations and species to manage using spatial distribution  and spread models. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 2010. 5 yr. $25,000.
  • Maxwell,  B. and C. Zabinski. Nutritional value of  locally grown vegetables: determining management effects and marketing  potential. Montana Department of Agriculture. 2010 1 yr. $33,409.
  • Maxwell,  B., P. Miller,  C. Zabinski and D. Buschena. Understanding  carbon dynamics: Agronomic, socioeconomic, and biophysical tradeoffs in the  sustainability of multifunctional cropping systems in the Northern Great  Plains. USDA–AFRI LTAP Proof of Concept. 2009. 2 yr. $199,980.
  • Rew,  L.J., J. Antle, B. Maxwell and J.  DiTomaso. A decision support  prioritization framework for non-indigenous plant population management.  USDA-NRI. 2009. 3 yr. $490,987.
  • Maxwell,  B. L.J. Rew and  V. Backus. Invasive plant inventory,  mapping and management tools for army training lands. USDOD-CERL, Installation  Division. 2009. 3 yr. $793,039.
  • Rew, L.J., B. Maxwell, M. Lavin. Survey, monitoring and predicting the  occurrence and spread of native and non-native plants species at Idaho National  Laboratories. USDOE Stoller Corporation. 2009. 2 yr. $244,064.
  • Harmon,  A., W. Dyer, B. Maxwell, C. Perillo,  J. Johnson-Maynard. Development, Integration  and Assessment of Food and Agricultural Systems Education. USDA-Higher  ducation Challenge Grant. 2008. 3 yr.  $475,888. 


Weed and Invasive Plant Ecology and Management Group


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